# Unit Converter

When we are in school learning about electrical resistance, it typically does not lead to confusion or misunderstanding. For instance, we encounter resistance from another child when we attempt to borrow their toy. As children, we explore our surroundings and become acquainted with different forms of resistance, not just in the realm of electricity. It could be argued that the term “resistance” is more familiar to us compared to many other physics terms, as we have been accustomed to this word and its significance since a young age.

We know that whales are metaphorical creatures that rest on the world, and we can say that they are a part of the foundation of our civilization. Along with other passive electronic components such as capacitors and inductors, resistors could be considered as part of them. It is estimated that there are tens of trillions of resistors globally, given the amount of electronic devices produced on circuit boards. Statistically, resistors make up more than 35% of electronic components. The number of resistors can reach several hundred thousand, and it is enough to mention that they are commonly used in today’s most common electronics, such as computers, tablets, smartphones, and mobile phones. These devices operate based on resistance, and even in today’s world, we cannot count all the resistors that are used.

## Meaning of Electrical Resistance

Resistance is a property of an electrical circuit that prevents the free flowing of electric current through the circuit. It is a physical quality of matter that resists the loss-free flow of electric current. It is calculated as the ratio of the potential difference (voltage) between two points in the circuit.

We can talk in general about resistivity and resistance, and we can say that in the specific case of thermal energy, we could mean “resistance”. If we talk about capacitive reactance, then if there is a large amount of inductance in the circuit, we should consider inductive reactance. On the other hand, when the alternating current runs through the circuit, the electrical energy is converted reversibly into electric or magnetic energy. When we talk about resistance, the conversion of electrical energy to thermal energy is irreversible. Electrical resistance is related to the conversion of electrical energy to other types of energy.

When we discuss electromagnetic waves and electromagnetic fields, we should also include a discussion about electrical impedance. In this specific case, electrical impedance combines both inductive and capacitive reactance, as well as resistance.

## Ohm’s Principle

Resistance can be denoted by the letter r or R, and it is considered a constant for a specific conductor within certain limits.

The equation for resistance is voltage divided by current.

Where.

R represents resistance, which is measured in ohms (Ω).

U is the potential difference or voltage between the terminals of the conductor, measured in volts (V);.

Electric current is the flow of electricity that runs between the ends of a conductor, measured in amperes (A).

Ohm’s law, named after the German scientist who uncovered it, is recognized as this equation. Joule’s initial principle is recognized as this rule, which explains the release of thermal energy when an electrical current flows through a conductor. There exists another significant principle.

Q = I2 × R × t.

Where.

Q is the amount of heat discharged during a given time t, Where. the energy is measured in joules (J);

I represents the electric current (A).

R represents resistance (Ω).

It is the time period in which the current flows through the conductor, measured in seconds (s).

## Units

The units used to measure resistance in the SI system are megohms (MΩ) or kiloohms (kΩ), which are derived from values and Ohm. You can see how ohms relate to other units by using the unit converter on our website.

## A Bit of Historical Background

Georg Simon Ohm, an exceptional physicist, was among the pioneers in studying electrical resistance. The unit of electrical resistance, proposed during the International Exposition of Electricity in Paris in 1881, bears his name. In recognition of his contributions to physics, he received the Copley Medal from the Royal Society of London on November 30, 1841. However, when his work was published in the local papers, he had to resign from his position as a mathematics teacher in Cologne. This discovery had a tremendous impact on the development of methods for utilizing electricity in daily life and industry. The famous law named after Georg Simon Ohm describes the relationship between potential difference, electric current, and resistance.

## The Science Behind Metal Resistance and Its Applications

Materials such as conductors, semiconductors, and dielectrics are categorized based on their relative resistance. Superconductors, which exhibit zero or nearly zero resistance, are also classified as a distinct category. Metals, which are widely known as conductors, can have varying resistance levels depending on the characteristics of their crystal lattice.

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Currently, we think that atoms of metals form a crystal lattice. Valence electrons form the so-called “electron gas” traveling through the lattice.

The direction of the external electric field applied to this material is determined by its geometry, alloy composition, and the resistance of the given metal. It is worth noting that the flow of electric current through this material serves to generate heat due to the stored energy. This stored energy is converted into thermal energy within the crystal lattice, as the collisions between electrons and ions cause a loss of kinetic energy and a change in momentum. Subsequently, the electric field accelerates the ions of the crystal lattice, leading to collisions with electrons. This motion causes an electric current to flow through the material, facilitating the systematic movement of electrons. The material is composed of atoms that serve as charge carriers, specifically conductivity electrons, which play a significant role in its overall structure. The relatively low resistance of metals is attributed to their composition.

In a glowing light bulb, we can gain insight into the behavior of fuses by examining pictures or videos of filament breakdown. The flow of electricity in the circuit is disrupted when the wire becomes melted. The wire will liquefy if the temperature surpasses the predetermined criteria, based on the melting point of the chosen material. Fuses with a wire element utilize this characteristic. The metal may become so hot that it liquefies due to the excessive heat. As the external force strengthens, the electric current passing through the metal intensifies, resulting in the emission of increasing amounts of heat.

Electrical impedance is employed as a heating component, predominantly. Electric ranges are utilized for culinary and warming meals, alongside electric ovens for baking bread and pastries. Electric tea kettles, coffee brewers, laundry machines, and electric pressing irons also make use of this characteristic. Our day-to-day convenience, whether it involves activating the hot water heater for a shower, utilizing an electric hearth, or employing an air conditioner with a heating feature to heat a space, is attributed to electrical impedance. All of these gadgets encompass a heating component that relies on electrical impedance. We frequently overlook this reality in our everyday lives.

The process of extrusion is used in the industry to create products or bags from plastics, to facilitate ideal temperatures for chemical reactions, and to create processed foods when drying, it is also used to enhance electrical resistance.

## The Science Behind Resistance in Semiconductors and Its Applications

When discussing semiconductors, we should note that they do not have resistance to their intrinsic conductivity. Unlike metals, they have higher electrical resistance when mixed with other materials in their pure form.

Doping is referred to as a process in which the intrinsic conductivity of a semiconductor is altered by mixing it with another material containing atoms with a higher number of electrons in the outer electron shell. Semiconductors that undergo this process are known as extrinsic semiconductors, specifically the p-type ones. In a specific semiconductor, the additional electrons integrate into the overall atom group, resulting in a decrease in resistance. Conversely, when additional atoms with fewer electrons in the outer electron shell are added to the semiconductor, a p-type semiconductor is obtained. In this case, the resistance of the semiconductor also decreases as the “missing” electrons, referred to as “holes”, become part of the entire atom group within the semiconductor.

In the case of the semiconductor, the most interesting scenario occurs when two different types of materials are joined together, resulting in a mixed conductance. This unique property is known as anisotropy, which is characterized by the dependence on the external electric field. The resistance of the p-n junction depends on the direction of this external electric field. When the voltage at the intermediate layer unlocks, recombination of carriers occurs in the intermediate layer, leading to a rapid increase in the resistance of the junction. Similarly, when the voltage at the intermediate layer of the boundary connecting the two types of conducting materials increases, the overall resistance increases drastically.

The device malfunctions and the p-n junction traverses both the n-type and the p-type components. This happens when a thermal breakdown occurs as a result of the electrical current surpassing the permissible value flowing through the p-n junction, which functions based on this principle. Rectifier diodes, which are essential electronic components, are engaged in this procedure.

Its properties do not conform to Ohm’s law, meaning that its resistance is not linear but rather depends on the direction of the external electric field. This is the key aspect to remember about the p-n junction.

The majority of modern digital devices exclusively use MOSFET transistors, which operate in an on-off mode. The polarity of the gate determines whether it is an n-type or p-type channel. The electric field controls the resistance of the drain and source. The processes that occur inside MOSFET transistors are different from those in metal-oxide semiconductor transistors.

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Irrespective of their performance, it can be stated that to a certain extent all transistors are actually controlled electrical resistors without inertia.

## The Science of Gas Resistance and Its Applications

Air is a mixture of gases, including a large amount of electric resistance due to its capacitors with an air-gap and overhead power lines. The property of gases is utilized in the contact switches. Gases are excellent dielectrics because they have a very small number of charged carriers such as electrons and positively charged ions, especially under normal conditions.

When a small lightning spark occurs, it turns into an electric discharge, which is equivalent to a small drop in the minimum resistance. As the resistance of the gas surrounding the lightning decreases, a corona discharge occurs and the gas turns into a discharge. The external voltage further drops as the gas stabilizes, allowing for a wide range of currents. These stabilizing devices, known as stabistors, were used in the past to light gas lights. This property of gases depends closely on the voltage and the resistance of the discharge, causing the glow to increase as the voltage increases. This is a result of the increase in ionization of the molecules, which is dependent on the resistance of the gases. When an external electric field is applied, the resistance of the gases slowly decreases, and their ionic conductance increases.

It does not comply with Ohm’s Law. The resistance of gases is non-linear and depends on the external electric field. The visible light spectrum is produced by converting the ultraviolet radiation into visible light inside the lamp, using a phosphor coating. Compact energy-saving fluorescent lamps work on the same principle, using the ability of mercury vapors to glow in ultraviolet. Neon voltage testers and sodium-vapor lamps, which are widely used for advertising neon lighting, display the electromagnetic field by causing ionized gases to glow when a small electric current flows through them.

## The Science of Electrical Resistance in Electrolytes and Its Applications

The cathode acquires the missing electrons and anions relinquish excess electrons on the anode. The charging and discharging of a specific electrode depend on the mechanism of this process. Cations and anions begin to move when we introduce two electrodes with opposite charges into an electrolyte, thereby generating an external electric field. In the latter scenario, these ions are referred to as anions, while in the former scenario, they are known as cations. These ions consist of atoms or molecules that have either gained or lost electrons. Their resistance is determined by the concentration of ions with different polarities. Electrolytes are liquid substances that can conduct electricity.

Electrolytes, semiconductors, and gases exhibit a notable contrast in the motion of particles within them when compared to metals. Electrolytes find extensive applications in medicine and technology, ranging from the filtration of impurities to the introduction of medicine through electrophoresis. In the case of electroplating, surfaces are coated with metals, chrome, and nickel, resulting in gleaming bathtubs and faucets. The efficacy of electroplating relies on factors such as temperature, electrolyte resistance, and other parameters governing the process.

When considering safety, it is common to assume a resistance of Ω k 1. Uncomfortable conditions and agitation can cause a decrease in resistance, leading to stress. The contact area between the skin and the conductor, as well as the environment and the emotional state of the person, can also change depending on it. However, it is important to remember that the average resistance of human skin is equivalent to about kΩ 50, which is a weak electrolyte. When it comes to personal safety, particularly in regards to current running through the body and resistance, we must keep in mind the perspective of our body as an electrolyte from a physics standpoint.

It is important to note that this method has very limited applicability as it gives incorrect readings when used on people who have unusually high skin resistance or who are psychologically unstable. Therefore, we should keep in mind that this device is only useful for those who are trained to cheat on it. It is believed to aid in determining uncomfortable questions for the interviewee when used in conjunction with other physiological measurements.

Once a certain point is reached, the resistance of the electrolyte starts to exhibit non-linear behavior. However, once the external electric field reaches a specific threshold, Ohm’s law can be partially applied to electrolytes.

## The Science of Resistance in Dielectrics and Applications for It

In engineering and RF electrical, we have now reached a point where we can create a significant number of electronic devices by separating electrons from a metal using resistance in a vacuum. This work, which considers the separation of electrons in a vacuum as opposed to the famous work of Albert Einstein on relativity, is less well-known but still popular. So, could we possibly discuss this resistance in a vacuum when using insulators as materials in engineering and physics? This property of dielectrics, which has a relatively high resistance, is widely used.

According to Einstein, when an electric field is applied to a conducting material, it creates a cloud of electrons surrounded by a cathode ray, which results in different resistance when the polarity of the applied voltage changes. Two-electrode vacuum devices have a lower resistance when the voltage is applied, and they were used for rectification of alternating current by amplifying signals with three or more electrodes. Now, they are being replaced by more energy-efficient transistors.

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Magnetrons which are used to produce microwave radiation for heating food.

Since the conductance in a vacuum is electronic, the resistance of the majority of vacuum tube devices follows Ohm’s law.

## Resistors and Their Application

Resistors, when considering the current-voltage behavior of resistors, frequently take into account the non-linearity in real-world scenarios. Stray inductance, referred to as stray capacitance, and small inductance, known as stray capacitance, are technical expressions of the phenomenon of electrical resistance within resistors. A resistor is a passive component used in electrical circuits to provide electrical resistance.

Resistors, which are a significant part of a circuit, are unimaginable to implement without them. We could make a circuit without them, but according to statistics, they make up to 35% of any electrical circuit. Regardless of how it was designed and made, a resistor can be called any electronic component by an electrical engineer. This saved the explorers in the end. After replacing a broken resistor with a piece of a lead pencil, the radio operator managed to send out an SOS signal. This is a great example of the crash of the airship named “Italy” by the renowned researcher Umberto Nobile.

The diagrams below mark the circuit in the image. They are marked with the amount of thermal emissions and manufacturing specifications. The resistance changes their way, the mounting method, safety specifications, and the type of current-voltage relationship. Resistors discrete are classified according to their use. Resistors can be used as parts of integrated circuits or as individual components in electronic devices, and they are important components.

The total resistance of the circuit when the connection is in series is equal to the combined resistances of each individual resistor. Resistors have the option to be connected in either a series or parallel configuration.

R equals the sum of R1, R2, and so on, up to Rn.

When the connection is in parallel, the overall resistance of the circuit is:.

R = R1 × R2 × … × Rn/(R1 + R2 + … + Rn).

Resistors are categorized according to their application into:

• General-purpose resistors.
• Specialized resistors.
• When it comes to the manner in which their resistance fluctuates, resistors are categorized into:

• Fixed resistors;.
• Trimmer pots or trim pots.
• Slide pots or thumb pots (potentiometers).
• Depending on the method of installation, resistors are categorized as:

• Those for printed circuit boards.
• Those employed in point-to-point building.
• Resistors for microchips and microelectronic module assembly.
• The categorization based on the kind of current-voltage correlation is as follows:

• Linear fixed resistors, which are primarily versatile components, are utilized for voltage division, restricting electric current, and dissipating power.
• Varistors are used to protect equipment from rapid changes and pulse surges in voltage, depending on the external resistance, when a certain threshold is reached.
• The resistance of thermistors depends on their temperature: negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors as well as positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors or posistors. They are used in temperature control circuits and fire safety temperature control systems. Historically, they were used in power measurements for microwave and RF. Thanks to this, the remnant magnetic field does not distort the colors on the display. When we turn on an old television set, which has a degaussing coil through a posistor, we create a magnetic field with waning amplitudes.
• The subway, for instance, has turnstiles and doors that open automatically. These systems use photoelectric sensors and devices for consumer security, as well as tracking and tracing. They employ photosensors to accomplish this. The resistance of these sensors, known as photoresistors, is influenced by lighting conditions.
• Magnetoresistors are used to measure power and magnetic induction through touch-free switches, Hall effect switches, remote potentiometers, and linear motion sensors. The resistance of these sensors depends on the intensity of the magnetic field.
• ## Resistors’ Color Coding

1.0 Megohms is equal to 1 Megohm 0, 560 kiloohms is equal to Megohm 56, 4.7 kiloohms is equal to 4 kiloohm 7, 33 Ohms is equal to 33 Ohm E, and 3.3 Ohms is equal to 3 Ohm 3. Megohms are designated as M, kiloohms are designated as K, and Ohms are designated as R and E. A specific symbol can indicate decimal points. If resistors are intended as discrete components, they can be marked with different color stripes, and alpha-numeric coding can be used in conjunction with color coding. The size and purpose of resistors determine their color-coded markings.

It is much easier to find coding information online, but we could find it in books as well. Small resistors are marked with color-coded stripes in accordance with established coding tables, using discrete components.

Resistors (SMD) are coded with three or four digits or three symbols, and these codes can be determined by checking a table or looking up online information.

## Determining the Resistance of Resistors

The resistance of a specific resistor can be determined and its specifications can be checked by directly using a multimeter. If your device is not powered, you can only test resistors that are already installed in a device. However, it is important to mention that the measurements of installed resistors may yield inaccurate results.

References.

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